Synthetic carbon materials have the advantage that they can be design specifically for electrochemical applications. In this sense high purity polymeric carbon materials with good electrical conductivity and either graphitic or amorphous structure as well as adjusted pore size to allow electrolyte diffusion can be designed and massively produced by sol-gel methodology. In order to reduce the battery energy cost for applications in EESs, the first course of action should be focused on the search for a competitive alternative to lithium compounds to replace the battery cathode as well as the electrolyte salt. Dual-ion batteries using sodium salts-based electrolytes (Na-DIBs) and carbon materials in the electrodes have very recently proposed, but it needs further research especially in the development of optimum active carbon materials for the electrodes. Based on these considerations, the General Objective of this project is to design and produce novel polymeric carbon materials for both the anode (hard carbon material) and the cathode (graphitic material) of sodium dual-ion batteries to achieve 100 Wh kg-1 of specific energy, 100 W kg-1 of specific power, > 500 cycles of lifetime and < 200 kW h-1 of energy cost, thus fitting the requirements for large scale renewable energy storage systems.

Funding Agency: MCIN/AEI/ 10.13039/501100011033 and by the European Union NextGeneration EU/PRTR, Ref. PID2020-113001RB-I00